Emotions are subjective reactions of human consciousness to objective reality. It is a personal experience of each person about the phenomena, the appearance of the outside world, the attitude towards the events around us and the submission of the subjective value of personal experiences. Strong, sudden and violent, but short-lived emotional reactions are called affective emotions.
The emotion causes any phenomena in the environment of the person from whom it is affected in some way, phenomena in which one’s own “I” is affected. The appearance of emotion means that something is happening outside of ourselves that threatens or positively stimulates and promotes the life processes of the individual. This means that emotions are a reflection of a person’s basic life needs, their needs to ensure their own survival, to gain security, to find support and protection, to realize themself. According to Goldstein K., emotions are a reflection of a person’s desire to be self-actualized.
If they are pleasant, they have a positive effect on the mental life of a person through a reaction of pleasure. Sometimes it is the realization of a certain physiological need or desire for activity, such as:
- satisfaction with the success achieved
- possessing someone’s love
- affirmation of one’s own individuality
In inability to satisfy such life needs, frustration arises, which causes feelings of discomfort or negative emotional reaction, which can harm the mental development and life of the person.
The type and intensity of emotions depend on the reasons for which they are caused, but also on the strength of the person’s mental state. Therefore, different people react to the same situation with different emotions.
But the same person can experience the same stimulus in different life situations with different emotions. They are the most subjective type of emotion and therefore the least stable component of the human person.
An emotional reaction triggers a need for action, sometimes as a way to escape a dangerous situation or to overcome an obstacle or as a source of pleasure. Along with the psychological manifestations, the physical components of emotional reactions also occur. Then the function of the glands changes, the muscles such as:
- increased sweating
- decreased saliva secretion
- accelerated blood flow
- elevated blood pressure
- accelerated breathing
- need for defecation
- muscle spasm
- increased gestation
- complete numbness
- change in facial expression
There are psychologists who claim the opposite. According to them, the emotional reactions are of a physical nature and the psychological reaction of the same is a consequence.
There are many different emotions.
Basic emotional feelings:
These are relatively simple emotions that occur as feelings of self-confidence, inferiority, depression, discouragement, the need for aggression, and so on.
More complex or social and moral emotional feelings:
- social responsibility
- antisocial behavior
Complex or intellectual emotional feelings:
Aesthetic emotional feelings:
- the tragic
Religious emotional feelings:
- fear of supernatural forces
- gratitude to the imagined deity
Emotional reactions to certain phenomena or experiences may weaken over time. This is called emotional adaptation, which usually occurs when it is often experienced and always causes the same emotional reaction. But vice versa, a person can become more and more sensitive to an experience that is often repeated and called emotional sensitivity. For example, in the case of emotional adaptation, if we read the same book over and over again, we are likely to become indifferent, even though we were initially interested. But vice versa, in the case of emotional sensitivity, re-experiencing something that bothers us can cause growing irritation each time.
Emotions are a hallmark of the human psyche. Also, the way we perceive everyday life depends to some extent on our emotional attitude toward what we experience. Man primarily pays attention to what interests him. The flow of thoughts and ideas that occur to us in a given situation depends on our current mood. For example, Lund F. H. reveals that there is a strong connection between what one considers to be true and what one wants to be true.
According to Mc Killop, Emotions significantly influence our decisions, as well as our overall behavior, because emotional attitudes largely govern our thinking and logical reasoning, so it’s easier to remember or learn what is in line with our aspirations and beliefs.
The intimate connection of emotions with other mental functions is observed in childhood. The younger the child, the more honest his behavior is as a result of emotional reactions. Thus, the experience of success makes children’s motor skills more alive, and depression and other negative emotions cause slower movements.
During speech development, the child classifies situations under the same name that have the same emotional significance for him. Among the various stimuli, the child notices those that are in line with his current mood. The more positive emotions prevail, the better he remembers and learns, that is, the easier it is to repeat what he has learned.
Judgment in a child depends on whether the experience for which it should bring some opinion or provoke a reaction, he experiences it with a feeling of pleasure or discomfort.
The child’s success in intellectual progress depends on his emotional relationship with the teacher, but also on the general emotional climate in which he lives. The influence of emotional factors on the child’s other mental functions is best reflected in the learning process. Strong positive emotions can greatly motivate a child to master the learning material faster.
For example, a child in the school is known to teach a subject with such diligence that the teacher knows how to interest and stimulate it. The success of the child in school is only a partial reflection of his abilities, in that area the pedagogical skills of the teachers and the emotional relations in the family have a great influence.
According to Holmes F. B., there is a relationship between a child’s intellect and emotion. Because emotions alter a child’s intellectual activity, they also depend on the degree of his mental development. Children of the same age and with different mental abilities are quite different from each other in the way they react emotionally. The more intelligent a child perceives the essence of a phenomenon better, the better he understands the connection between cause and effect, and the faster and more fully he recognizes what is best for him and what to do in such a situation and what not. Therefore, an emotionally sensitive and intellectually advanced child reacts sensitively to irregularities in given situations, and in dangerous situations in him the reaction to fear will be stronger than in a less emotionally and intellectually developed child, which may not notice the phenomenon.
The more intelligent a child is, the more developed his feelings about aesthetic experiences are, the better he understands the tragic and the comic, and the more he is able to recognize danger in advance. However, traumatic emotional experiences through which a child makes decisions can equally obscure the intellect of both the mentally retarded and the mentally weaker child. Both types of children are equally sensitive to circumstances that hinder their spontaneity.
According to Smith M. E., the feeling of inferiority is equally present in children at all levels of mental development. It is also characteristic of a child that his emotions often overwhelm the mind, and emotion sometimes has a stronger effect on his behavior than intellect.